WHERE IS THE THYROID GLAND?

Thyroid a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck, just below your Adam’s apple.

WHAT DOES MY THYROID DO?

Thyroid basically produces hormones that

  1. Regulate your heart rate.
  2. Blood pressure.
  3. Body temperature and weight

HOW DO I KNOW I HAVE THYROID CANCER?

Thyroid cancer typically doesn’t cause any signs or symptoms early in the disease. As thyroid cancer grows, it may cause:

  • A lump that can be felt through the skin on your neck.
  • Changes to your voice, including increasing hoarseness.
  • Difficulty swallowing.
  • Pain in your neck and throat.

IS THYROID CANCER VERY COMMON.

Thyroid cancer isn’t common. Due to advancement in imaging techniques, we can detect small cancer also, so we are detecting more cases of thyroid cancer.

Cause : – It’s not clear what causes thyroid cancer.

  • cells in your thyroid undergo genetic changes (mutations).
  • cells grow and multiply rapidly.
  • cells also lose the ability to die.

WHAT CAN PUT ME AT RISK FOR THYROID CANCER?

Factor that may increase the risk of thyroid cancer include :

  • Female Sex: Thyroid cancer occurs more often in women than in men.
  • Exposure to high levels of radiation
  • Certain inherited genetic syndromes.: Familial medullary thyroid cancer and multiple endocrine neoplasia
  • Iodine Deficiency.

I HAVE NECK SWELLING WHAT DO I DO?

You need to see your physician/surgeon. He will examine you and try to rule out all cancer for neck swelling.

THE NEXT STEP :

FNAC – A fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is the next diagnostic step.

In this biopsy procedure, a thin needle is introduced into lump to collect cells to view a microscope.

FNA is well – tolerated procedure and is generally done with guidance of ultrasound.

Based on FNA results.

  • 80% – non-cancerous (benign),
  • <10% – cancerous (malignant)
  • 10% –

Repeat biopsy or surgery can be considered for indeterminate results.

To see the extent of the disease once the diagnosis is made additional images like

  • ultrasound
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • PET scan

can be considered.

TYPE OF THYROID CANCER?

The type of thyroid cancer you have determines treatment and prognosis.

Type of Thyroid cancer include:

  • Papillary thyroid cancer: The most common form of thyroid cancer.
  • Follicular thyroid cancer: Follicular thyroid cancer also arises from the follicular cells of the thyroid. It usually affects people older than age 50.
  • Medullary thyroid cancer
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer: Anaplastic thyroid cancer is rare occurs in adult age 60 and older.
  • Thyroid Lymphoma: Thyroid Lymphoma is a rare form of thyroid cancer.

TREATMENT.

The thyroid cancer treatment generally involves, but is individualized on the person.

  1. Surgery
  2. Radioactive iodine treatment,
  3. External beam radiation and
  4. Chemotherapy.

 

AFTER INITIAL TREATMENT

  1. Neck Imaging
  2. Thyroid Tumor Marker Levels

Are Checked Periodically To Monitor For Recurrence And To Decide If Additional Treatment Is Needed.

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